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Contribution Invited Oral

Budker INP - Conference Hall
SR technological application and X-ray apparatus

X-ray Dark-Field Imaging (XDFI): Recent Developments and Clinical Applications


  • Prof. Masami ANDO

Primary authors



This paper describes a novel x-ray phase contrast imaging technique called X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) that has been under development for the past 10 years. We describe the theory behind XDFI, the x-ray optics required for implementing it in practice, and algorithms used for 2D, 2.5D, and 3D image reconstruction. The XDFI optical chain consists of an asymmetrically cut, Bragg-type monochromator-collimator that provides a planar monochromatic x-ray beam, a positioning stage for the specimens, a Laue-case angle analyzer, and one or two cameras to capture the dark and bright field images. We demonstrate soft-tissue discrimination capabilities of XDFI by reconstructing images with absorption and phase contrast. By using a variety of specimens such as breast tissue with cancer, joints with articular cartilage, ex-vivo human eye specimen, and others, we show that refraction-based contrast derived from XDFI is more effective in characterizing normal anatomy, articular pathology, and neoplastic disease than the convectional absorption-based images. For example, XDFI of breast tissue can discriminate between the normal and diseased terminal duct lobular unit, and between invasive and in-situ cancer. The final section of this paper is devoted to potential future developments to enable clinical and histo-pathological applications of this technique.


[1] Simple x ray dark- and bright- field imaging using achromatic Laue optics, M. Ando, A. Maksimenko, H. Sugiyama, W. Pattanasiriwisawa, K. Hyodo and C. Uyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1016 (2002).

[2] Computed tomographic reconstruction based on x-ray refraction contrast, A. Maksimenko, M. Ando, H. Sugiyama, T. Yuasa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 124105-1 (2005).

[3] X-ray refraction-contrast computed tomography images using dark-field imaging optics, N. Sunaguchi, T. Yuasa, Q. Huo, S. Ichihara and M. Ando, Appl. Phys. Letters 97,153701-1 (2010).

[4] Iterative reconstruction algorithm for analyzer-based phase-contrast CT of hard and soft tissue, N. Sunaguchi, T.Yuasa, M. Ando, Appl. Phys. Letters 103, 143702-1 (2013).

[5] 3-D reconstruction and virtual ductoscopy of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with casting type calcifications using refraction-based x-ray CT, S. Ichihara, M. Ando, A. Maksimenko, T. Yuasa, H. Sugiyama, E. Hashimoto, K. Yamasaki, K. Mori, Y. Arai and T. Endo, Virchows Archiv 451, 41 (2008).

[6] X-ray phase contrast imaging in the dark field: implementation and evaluation using excised tissue specimens, M. Ando, N. Sunaguchi, Y. Wu, S. Do, Y. Sung, A. Louissaint, T. Yuasa, S. Ichihara, R. Gupta, Eur. Rad. 23, 3021 (2013). 

[7] X-ray Dark-Field Imaging (XDFI): Recent Developments and Clinical Applications, M. Ando, N. Sunaguchi, D. Shimao, A. Pan, T. Yuasa, K. Mori, Y. Suzuki, G. Jin, J.-K. Kim, Jae-Hong Lim, S.-J. Seo, S. Ichihara, N. Ohura, R. Gupta, submitted to Eur. J. Med. Phys.