Contribution Invited Oral
X-ray Dark-Field Imaging (XDFI): Recent Developments and Clinical Applications
- Prof. Masami ANDO
- Prof. Masami ANDO (Tokyo University of Science)
- Dr. Naoki SUNAGUCHI (Gunma University)
- Prof. Daisuke SHIMAO (Hokkaido University of Science)
- Dr. Adam PAN (MIT)
- Prof. Tetsuya YUASA (Yamagata University)
- Prof. Kensaku MORI (Nagoya University)
- Prof. Yoshifumi SUZUKI (KIT)
- Mr. Ge JIN (KIT)
- Prof. Jong-Ki KIM (Catholic University of Daegu)
- Dr. Seung-Jun SEO (Catholic University of Daegu)
- Prof. Shu ICHIHARA (Nagoya Medical Center)
- Prof. Norihiko OHURA (Kyorin Univesity)
- Prof. Rajiv GUPTA (Harvard University)
- Dr. Jae-Hong LIM (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory)
This paper describes a novel x-ray phase contrast imaging technique called X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) that has been under development for the past 10 years. We describe the theory behind XDFI, the x-ray optics required for implementing it in practice, and algorithms used for 2D, 2.5D, and 3D image reconstruction. The XDFI optical chain consists of an asymmetrically cut, Bragg-type monochromator-collimator that provides a planar monochromatic x-ray beam, a positioning stage for the specimens, a Laue-case angle analyzer, and one or two cameras to capture the dark and bright field images. We demonstrate soft-tissue discrimination capabilities of XDFI by reconstructing images with absorption and phase contrast. By using a variety of specimens such as breast tissue with cancer, joints with articular cartilage, ex-vivo human eye specimen, and others, we show that refraction-based contrast derived from XDFI is more effective in characterizing normal anatomy, articular pathology, and neoplastic disease than the convectional absorption-based images. For example, XDFI of breast tissue can discriminate between the normal and diseased terminal duct lobular unit, and between invasive and in-situ cancer. The final section of this paper is devoted to potential future developments to enable clinical and histo-pathological applications of this technique.
 Simple x ray dark- and bright- field imaging using achromatic Laue optics, M. Ando, A. Maksimenko, H. Sugiyama, W. Pattanasiriwisawa, K. Hyodo and C. Uyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1016 (2002).
 Computed tomographic reconstruction based on x-ray refraction contrast, A. Maksimenko, M. Ando, H. Sugiyama, T. Yuasa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 124105-1 (2005).
 X-ray refraction-contrast computed tomography images using dark-field imaging optics, N. Sunaguchi, T. Yuasa, Q. Huo, S. Ichihara and M. Ando, Appl. Phys. Letters 97,153701-1 (2010).
 Iterative reconstruction algorithm for analyzer-based phase-contrast CT of hard and soft tissue, N. Sunaguchi, T.Yuasa, M. Ando, Appl. Phys. Letters 103, 143702-1 (2013).
 3-D reconstruction and virtual ductoscopy of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with casting type calcifications using refraction-based x-ray CT, S. Ichihara, M. Ando, A. Maksimenko, T. Yuasa, H. Sugiyama, E. Hashimoto, K. Yamasaki, K. Mori, Y. Arai and T. Endo, Virchows Archiv 451, 41 (2008).
 X-ray phase contrast imaging in the dark field: implementation and evaluation using excised tissue specimens, M. Ando, N. Sunaguchi, Y. Wu, S. Do, Y. Sung, A. Louissaint, T. Yuasa, S. Ichihara, R. Gupta, Eur. Rad. 23, 3021 (2013).
 X-ray Dark-Field Imaging (XDFI): Recent Developments and Clinical Applications, M. Ando, N. Sunaguchi, D. Shimao, A. Pan, T. Yuasa, K. Mori, Y. Suzuki, G. Jin, J.-K. Kim, Jae-Hong Lim, S.-J. Seo, S. Ichihara, N. Ohura, R. Gupta, submitted to Eur. J. Med. Phys.