Synchrotron Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering as Universal Instrument of Structural Analysis of Bio and Nanosystems
Small-angle X-ray scattering is a universal diffraction method for studying the supra-atomic structure of matter. The potential of this technique has greatly increased in recent years due to the development of bright synchrotron radiation sources. The extensive use of these sources, in combination with new techniques for interpretation of scattering data and structural modeling, made small-angle scattering one of the most effective analytical methods to study nanoscale structures. In the present work, after a brief outline of the basic principles of small-angle scattering by isotropic dispersed nanosystems, two areas of nanodiagnostics, in which the progress in the small-angle experiment and the latest techniques for interpreting scattering data has become pronounced in recent years, will be demonstrated. These areas - the analysis of the structure of biological macromolecules in a solution and structural studies of metal nanoparticles synthesized in polymer and aqueous media - are illustrated by examples of practical biological and nanotechnologycal applications.
This work was supported in part by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (projects 15-54-74002 EMBL, 16-03-00375, 16-03-00379 and 16-29-11765).