# The 6th International symposium on Negative Ions, Beams and Sources (NIBS'18)

3-7 September 2018
Budker INP
Asia/Novosibirsk timezone
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## Contribution List

Displaying 101 contributions out of 101
Type: Oral Session: 2nd Session
Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
This paper will be an overview of the history of negative ion source used at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). It will cover the original design of the magnetron ion source, still used today, to present operations. Initially FNAL acceleratoed protons in the linear accelerator (LINAC) for the physics program. As the need for proton flux increased it became clear that the LINAC was limit ... More
Presented by Dan BOLLINGER
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
RF-driven (with internal or external antenna), Cs-enhanced H- ion sources are used at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to produce high current (>60 mA), high duty-factor (1 ms pulses at 60 Hz rep rate) H- beams. A 2-MHz RF generator on ground potential delivers high power (up to 80 kW) RF pulses, which are transmitted to the ion source antenna through an isolation transformer and an impedance m ... More
Presented by Dr. Baoxi HAN
Type: Poster Track: Other Negative ion sources
Source of Negative Ions By Cesium Sputtering (SNICS) is widely used in tandem accelerators for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the isotope ratios of long-lived radionuclides with very high precision. Unfortunately, still, the mechanisms for negative ion creation, as well as the operation of the source are not completely understood and could be possible for additional optimization, ... More
Presented by Dr. Dimitar YORDANOV
Type: Poster Track: Beam acceleration and neutralization
The results of the experimental study of confinement of low-temperature plasma target for neutralization of high-energy negative ion beam are presented in the paper. The plasma target cylindrical vacuum chamber is 1.2 m long and 0.2 m in diameter. The axisymmetric multicusp magnetic field is formed at the periphery of the target chamber by using an array of the permanent NdFeB magnets, which a ... More
Presented by Mr. Ivan EMELEV
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
A new linear accelerator Linac4 [1] is being comissioned at CERN as a part of the upgrade of their accelerator chain. A radio frequency (RF) driven type negative hydrogen H- source is used as an injector of Linac4. The Linac4 H- source must deliver 40-50 mA, 45 keV H- beam. The power transfer efficiency between the RF generator and the ion source plasma is one of the important parameters that dete ... More
Presented by Ms. Wakaba KOBAYASHI
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The Multicsup Cesiated Surface Conversion H- Ion Source at LANSCE has provided beam at 14 mA, 120 Hz, and 10% D.F. for many years of neutron science research. Recently, random high current transients were discovered in the arc current used to ionize hydrogen in the LANSCE H- source. Most have no effect, but more severe transients can cripple beam output. Hypothesized causes are related to cesiatio ... More
Presented by Dr. David KLEINJAN
Type: Poster Track: Other Negative ion sources
Ion implantation requires a high beam current stability to ensure a uniform implantation dose across the wafers. This requires ion sources with a stable extraction system to achieve a high beam current stability. Our goal is to extract 0.5 mA of C2─ with less than 10 glitches per hour, with a glitch defined as any variation greater than +/- 5% of the nominal beam current. The beam energy should ... More
Presented by Mr. Stephane MELANSON
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) cesiated RF-driven Hˉ ion source has been stably operated for about four years. The J-PARC RFQ linac successfully accelerated the J-PARC requirement intensity of 60 mA, when a 70 mA beam was injected from the source. The high intensity beam with transverse emittances suitable for the RFQ is produced with several unique measures, such as, slig ... More
Presented by Dr. Akira UENO
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
In hydrogen negative ion sources, co-extracted electrons are dumped on extraction grid (EG) with electron deflection magnets (EDMs). The negative ion beam trajectory is slightly perturbed by the EDM field, and the aperture displacement technique has been applied in negative ion sources for fusion in order to compensate the beam deflection [1]. Recently, it was proposed that the beam deflection can ... More
Presented by Dr. Masashi KISAKI
Type: Oral Track: Fundamental processes and modelling
The consumption rate of caesium (Cs) for negative hydrogen (H-) ion source increases when the source operation gas is changed from hydrogen to deuterium. A clear indication that a deuterium discharge erodes Cs atoms on the surface to increase work function, and thus, co-extracted electron current. We have proposed a model that the enhanced sputtering yield of Cs from the plasma grid (PG) due to ... More
Presented by Prof. Katsuyoshi TSUMORI
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The standard ISIS Penning-type H– ion source operates with plasma and beam duty cycles of 4% and 1.25%, respectively, at 50 Hz repetition rate. It uses pulsed hydrogen injection, whereas cesium (Cs) is injected continually from an external oven. The oven is usually operated at around 160 °C, which is a compromise between high H– output, long-term plasma stability and low spark rate. Neutral C ... More
Presented by Mr. Tiago MORAIS SARMENTO
Type: Poster Session: P-2
Track: Beam lines and facilities
The significant part of any high-power neutral beam injector is the beam absorber, which serves also as a calorimeter. The power neutral beam injector operates in multimegawatt range and the peak-power densities normal to the beam axis can reach few tens kW/cm2, especially for injectors with beam focusing. With these parameters the main problem is the crisis of the heat transfer between the inner ... More
Presented by Dr. Petr DEICHULI
Type: Poster Track: Fundamental processes and modelling
It is assumed that persistent cesiation in the SNS RF SPS is related to deposition of carbon film on the collar converter. The work function dependence for graphite with alkali deposition has no minimum typical for metals and semiconductors and the final work function is higher. For this reason, the probability of H- secondary emission from cesiated metal and semiconductors can be higher than from ... More
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The Cybele negative ion source is designed and operated at the IRFM in CEA Cadarache for the development of the future NBI system SIPHORE for future fusion reactors [1]. The main objective is to create a thin and tall (blade-like) negative ion beam (H-,D-), which will be neutralized by the laser photodetachment. For this purpose Cybele has an aspect ratio (1.2 m high *0.15 m wide) which is directe ... More
Presented by Mr. Iaroslav MORGAL
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
During 2016, a joint experimental campaign was carried out by QST and Consorzio RFX on the Negative Ion Test Stand (NITS) at the QST Naka Fusion Institute, Japan, in order to validate some design solutions adopted in MITICA which is the full-scale prototype of the ITER NBI, presently under construction at Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy. The main purpose of the campaign was to test a novel techni ... More
Presented by Dr. Daniele APRILE
Type: Poster Track: Beam lines and facilities
Steady-state operation of a fusion neutron source (FNS) requires plasma heating and current drive by means of additional power delivered by neutral beams. Six neutral beam injectors (NBI) will provide DEMO-FNS machine with additional heating power up to 30 MW, with neutral particle energy 500 keV. NBI systems developed for ITER can serve as the prototype for DEMO-FNS, as both systems have similar ... More
Presented by Dr. Sergey ANANYEV
Type: Poster Track: Beam acceleration and neutralization
In non resonant photon trap concept for neutralization of powerful negative ion beams one of problems is bombarding mirrors by high energy particles. They are occured due to scattering ions or atoms on residual gas in transport channel. The simple estimation shows that it may be main cause of mirror damage. The simulation particles scattering by background gas and interraction with mirror mater ... More
Presented by Mr. Magomedrizy ATLUKHANOV
Type: Oral Session: 1st Session
Track: Beam acceleration and neutralization
For plasma heating of JT-60 Super Advanced (SA), a negative ion source of 500 keV, 22 A (130 A/m2) and 100 s is required as beam source of negative ion base neutral beam injector (N-NBI). So far, these goals have been achieved independently, but not simultaneously. One of issues is limitation of applicable arc power by anomalus discharge between plasma chamber wall/plasma and cathodes (filament ... More
Presented by Mr. Masahiro ICHIKAWA
Type: Poster Session: P-1
Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
Alkali metal such as cesium covers the plasma electrode to enhance the negative hydrogen ion surface production in a negative ion source. Accumulation of Cs in the source shortens the maintenance cycle of the apparatus. In this research, inorganic material, C12A7 electride, which has low work function and high electric conductance, is studied as a candidate material for a new type of cesium-free p ... More
Presented by Mr. Masumi KOBAYASHI
Type: Poster Track: Other Negative ion sources
To study and optimize negative ion production for the HUST (Huazhong University of Science and Technology) radio frequency negative ion source, an instrumented calorimeter is under construction with the aim of testing beam characteristics and verifying the source proper operation. Based on the comparative analysis of different calorimeter structures and actual requirements of the HUST source, this ... More
Presented by Ms. Wendou YAN
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The radio frequency driven source for negative hydrogen ions, to investigate the physics of production and extraction of the H$^-$ ions, is under construction at Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Plasma generated from RF driver expands to the surface of plasma grid. Extraction system with three grids is designed to extract and accelerate the H$^-$ beams. The design parameters of the i ... More
Presented by Mr. Chen ZUO
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The polarized beam for RHIC spin physics experimental program is produced in the Optically Pumped Polarized H– Ion Source (OPPIS). The present RHIC OPPIS produces 0.5–1.0 mA current in 300 μs pulse duration. The polarized H– ion beam of 35 keV beam energy out of the source is accelerated to 200 MeV in a linear accelerator for strip injection to Booster. The H– ion pulse is captured in a s ... More
Presented by Mr. Anton KOLMOGOROV, Dr. Anatoli ZELENSKI
Type: Poster Track: Beam lines and facilities
Neutral beam injector (NBI) is an effective plasma heating and driving method for fusion sciences research. The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is under design and will be developed in the near future. In order to support the development of CFETR, a negative ion based neutral beam injector was under design. The ion source is the most precision and important part of NBI. A negative i ... More
Presented by Prof. Chundong HU
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
Development of negative ion sources and development of the accelerator of negative ion beams are of crucial importance for nuclear fusion research. In order to evaluate beam optics, and to investigate the characteristics of meniscus formed between negative ion beam region and plasma region, detaild measurement of beam property is required. Therefore, we have developed a new beamlet monitor system ... More
Presented by Mr. Yasuaki HABA
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
A series of Surface-Plasma negative ion Sources (SPSs) were developed and produced at BINP in the last 30 years. The energy of H- beams, delivered by SPS is varied in the region 10 - 120keV, the beam current – in the range from several mA CW up to several Amps in the long-pulsed operation [1]. A typical Power Supply system (PS) of the ion source provides the powering and controlling of SPS c ... More
Presented by Dr. Valery SAVKIN
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
A review of surface-plasma negative ions sources developed in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for use in accelerators and neutral injectors for fusion experimental devices in last decade is presented. Physical processes, main properties and features of surface-plasma sources with various high-current discharge drivers are analyzed. Key issues and solutions in achieving the sources high pow ... More
Presented by Prof. Yuri BELCHENKO
Type: Poster Session: P-1
Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The development of a Cs-seeded RF negative ion beam source has been started as a collaborative research project between two institutes KAERI and NFRI, towards ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) technology. The final performance objective of the source is to produce 200 keV, 0.5 A deuterium ion beams. The preliminary experiments for the performance evaluation of the RF plasma source was conducted. Th ... More
Presented by Dr. Min PARK
Type: Poster Track: Fundamental processes and modelling
The use of caesium vapour is mandatory in plasma sources for negative ion beams to achieve a sufficient negative ion density. In the SPIDER ion source, three caesium ovens will provide a sufficiently high caesium flux to the walls of the ion source, but also a relatively even caesium distribution in the ion source volume. In order to qualify the caesium ovens in terms of repeatability of the evapo ... More
Presented by Dr. Emanuele SARTORI
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
Degradations of ion source performance were found in deuterium operation of negative ion source for Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) on Large Helical Device (LHD).: Lower ion beam current efficiency for discharge power, higher electron current ratio to ion beam current and more intense Cs atom emission (related with sputtering) in the same Cs tank temperature operation. We changed pressure inside disch ... More
Presented by Dr. Haruhisa NAKANO
Type: Oral Track: Fundamental processes and modelling
Plasma surface interaction in a cesiated negative hydrogen (H$^-$) ion source determines the overall Cs consumption rate of the source. The Cs coverage on the plasma grid (PG) surface is reduced mainly by two mechanisms. The first mechanism is the removal of Cs from the PG by direct sputtering, or ion induced desorption. The second is the deposition of atoms that form a layer above the Cs cover ... More
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
$\:\:\:\:\:\:$Development of $H^-$ ion sources which can produce high beam intensity with a small beam divergence angle is useful in plasma heating systems for magnetic fusion reactors and accelerators for high-energy physics. Since one of the main requirements for the extracted particle beam in Linac4 $H^-$ ion source is to minimize the beam divergence and emittance, it is of vital importance to ... More
Presented by Mr. Max LINDQVIST
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
Faraday shield (FS), a thin-wall metal structure with slits, is used in inductive coupled plasma (ICP) sources to protect the ceramic tube from the plasma erosion and eliminate capacitive coupling. Through the slit, electromagnetic energy is coupled into the driver to excite and sustain plasma, hence FS is an important component of ICP source. Material and structure, which has significant effect o ... More
Presented by Peng CHEN
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
Modeling for a longer stable production of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source is constructed, based on the experimentally obtained temperature dependace of the cesium (Cs) adsorption/desorption. In this model, a thickness of the Cs layer on a plasma grid (PG) in this source is evaulated, because the Cs layer loweres a work function of the PG to enhance the negative ion produc ... More
Presented by Dr. Masafumi YOSHIDA
Type: Poster Track: Beam lines and facilities
Diagnostic of neutral beam (NB) profiles in powerful long-pulse injectors intended for plasma heating and current drive in fusion devices is a problem task in consequence of very high NB power density (PD) at a level of tens MW/m2. NB profiles give an information required for determination of such important parameters as the beam divergence angle and accuracy of its axis aiming onto a tokamak entr ... More
Presented by Mr. Kirill BARKALOV
Type: Oral Track: Beam lines and facilities
Reference design of the Residual Ion Dump (RID) for the ITER NBI system is based on an electrostatic deflection of the residual negative and positive ions to in-line dump panels. According to 4-channels beam line concept, RID forms four narrow (about 100 mm in width) vertical channels with the aid of 5 panels (1.8 m long and 1.7 m in height). Two middle panels are negatively biased with about 20 k ... More
Presented by Dr. Alexander PANASENKOV
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
On the BATMAN testbed prototypes of RF driven negative ion sources of about one eight of the size of the ITER source have been developed and tested since 1997. The positive results had led to the decision to equip the ITER NBI with RF sources. During the past 1.5 years this test facility has been upgraded in order to have an extraction system and source design closer to that of the ITER source a ... More
Presented by Dr. Werner KRAUS
Type: Oral Track: Fundamental processes and modelling
Negative hydrogen ion sources are widely used to produce neutron beams, relevant to both accelerators and fusion devices. There are a number of different kinds of negative hydrogen sources in use today, including inductively coupled plasma sources (ICPs). For instance, coils external to the ion source chamber can be designed to deposit power into hydrogen plasmas to create highly excited ionic st ... More
Presented by Dr. Seth VEITZER
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
H^- ion sources are needed in various areas of nowadays physics, such as for beam injection into cyclotrons and storage rings and for plasma heating in experimental facilities studying the possibility of thermonuclear fusion. According to the recently proven fact that gasdynamic ECR ion source based on ECR discharge in a simple mirror trap could be very efficient for proton beam production, we use ... More
Presented by Mr. Roman LAPIN
Type: Poster Track: Fundamental processes and modelling
Conventional global models for plasma discharge chambers solve volume averaged continuity equations, electron and total energy equations supplemented by quasineutrality condition in order to obtain plasma components number densities and electron and heavy species temperatures. These models are limited to single chamber designs. Their main advantage is a rapid evaluation of parameter space that is ... More
Presented by Dr. Seth VEITZER
Type: Poster Session: P-1
Track: Fundamental processes and modelling
The purpose of the work is to expand the electronic database "Electronic structure of atoms" [1] through the information on the negative ions of various chemical elements. As far as the authors are aware, at present there is no specialized database on negative ions in the scientific literature and Internet. The collection and analysis of information on atomic systems can be documented in a tabula ... More
Type: Poster Track: Beam lines and facilities
The "pepper-pot" emittance measuring device developed earlier for INR RAS 400 keV H-minus LEBT channel was applied with minor modification to control the transverse emittances at the exit of H-minus ion source for 7…15 keV beam energy. It includes the "pepper-pot" mask, the quartz screen, the CCD camera, PC, the software for camera data processing and beam phase portrait formation. The issues ... More
Presented by Mr. Viktor KLENOV
Type: Oral Session: 2nd Session
Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
To meet the full 2 ms 50 Hz 60 mA beam requirements for the Front End Test Stand (FETS) at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), a new cesiated Penning Surface Plasma Source (SPS) has been developed with a larger plasma volume with 2X the linear dimensions of the standard ISIS source [1]. A clean 75 mA H– beam has been measured from the 2X Scaled Source on the VESPA test stand at full 2 ... More
Presented by Dr. Dan FAIRCLOTH
Type: Poster Session: P-1
Track: Beam formation and low energy transport
An electrostatic vacuum-insulation tandem accelerator is under operation at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2006. The 2 -2.5 MeV protons with continuous accelerated current more than 5 mA are produced [1]. To increase the injected current, the new injector with pre-acceleration of negative ions was developed. The injector consists of the high current negative ion source version [2], of b ... More
Presented by Dr. Andrey SANIN
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
TRIUMF has developed H- ion sources for decades and now they are being employed in machines such as the 500MeV, TR30, TR13 at TRIUMF as well as various other machines worldwide. A high current version can produce up to 60 mA of H- beam. A new H- ion source with a small plasma volume is being developed to produce 5 mA at a very low emittance and run years without changing the filament. Due to the l ... More
Presented by Dr. Keerthi JAYAMANNA
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
D-Pace's multi-cusp ion source achieves high DC beam currents for negative hydrogen ions in both the TRIUMF licensed filament-powered ion source (~18mA) and the University of Jyväskylä licensed RF ion source (~8mA). However, the DC beam currents achieved from this source for negative deuterium ions is only 1/3 that of negative hydrogen ions. An earlier study [1] revealed that it is possible to ... More
Presented by Mr. Anand Mathai GEORGE
Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The Siemens Eclipse (RDS111) cyclotron utilizes an internal Penning Ion Gauge (PIG) ion source to provide the negative hydrogen ions for this 11 MeV PET cyclotron. Siemens worked with D-Pace Inc. to optimize the ion source current and transmission through the cyclotron to the radioisotope targets. The goal was to increase the target current from 120µA (dual 60µA) to 150µA (dual 75µA) and to ... More
Presented by Mr. David POTKINS, Dr. Morgan DEHNEL
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
In order to reduce the beam losses of the negative ion beam in the NIO1 experiment, the vacuum system was improved by installing an additional cryogenic pump. In the upgraded configuration, the negative ion beam can be operated in two regimes of high and low background pressures. The gas flow in the improved configuration was simulated, characterizing the existing pumping system and verifying the ... More
Presented by Dr. Emanuele SARTORI
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
In the last decade, a series of high power neutral beam injectors for plasma heating and diagnostics in magnetic fusion experiments has been developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. In the injectors, the plasma emitter is produced by inductively coupled radio frequency discharge. With this emitter of difference size, positive ion hydrogen and deuterium beams with energy up to 60 keV a ... More
Presented by Dr. Igor SHIKHOVTSEV
Type: Poster Track: Beam formation and low energy transport
We showed a result that an H$^-$ beam extracted from the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) H$^-$ ion source plasma fluctuates at the rf-induction frequency [1]. In order to investigate the influence of the rf power induction at the frequency of 2 MHz upon the produced plasma in the source and the beam extracted from the source, we construct test benches that enable measurements of ... More
Presented by Dr. Katsuhiro SHINTO
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
In 2017, a Radio Frequency (RF) negative hydrogen ion (H$^-$) source has been applied for J-PARC user operation and accelerator study by producing the peak beam current of H$^-$ up to 45 mA and 68 mA at low energy beam transport (LEBT) line, respectively. For further increase in the beam current, bias voltage application on a plasma electrode (PE) is one of the possible candidates. In the previous ... More
Presented by Dr. Katsuhiro SHINTO
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system for ITER requires large scale sources for negative hydrogen ions. The ELISE test facility at IPP Garching uses a ½ scale ITER-source (extraction area of 0.1 m$^2$ at ELISE) and shall demonstrate the feasibility of the ITER parameters (extracted $j_\mathrm{H^-} = 329~ \mathrm{A/m^2}$ for 1000 s, $j_\mathrm{D^-} = 286~\mathrm{A/m^2}$ for 3600 s, with a co-ext ... More
Presented by Dr. Christian WIMMER
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
A prototype radio frequency (RF) negative hydrogen ion source is under developing under the cooperative research project between the National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI)and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) of 2 MHz radio frequency is developed so far, and three grids accelerator and Cesium injector will be developed in the near future. Fo ... More
Presented by Dr. Byungkeun NA
Type: Poster Session: P-1
Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The principle mechanism of the negative hydrogen (H$^-$) ion current enhancement due to Cs injection can be attributable to the reflection of atomic hydrogen at low work function plasma grid surface. To directly confirm the contribution of atomic hydrogen (H$^0$) flux in the actual ion source operating condition, H$^0$ sources of different types are attached to a small multicusp type H$^-$ ion so ... More
Presented by Mr. Yuji SHIMABUKURO
Type: Oral Track: Beam lines and facilities
Abstract. The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a state-of-the-art neutron scattering facility delivering the most intense pulsed neutron beams available to a wide array of instruments which are used to conduct investigations in many fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, material science and biology. Neutrons are produced through spallation of liquid Hg by bombardment of short pulses ... More
Presented by Dr. robert WELTON
Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system for ITER requires large scale sources for negative hydrogen ions. BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative Ions) is dedicated to physical investigations due to its flexible access for diagnostics and exchange of source components. In 2017, several critical hardware components were upgraded (see W. Kraus contribution for details) and BATMAN Upgrade is no ... More
Presented by Dr. Loic SCHIESKO
Type: Poster Track: Beam acceleration and neutralization
Negative ion beams are used as precursors of neutral beams for additional heating of fusion plasmas. By ionizing the background gas, positive ions are confined and cumulated in the negative potential well of the ion beam, until the space charge is neutralized and the negative ion beam can propagate in the absence of defocusing electric fields. Experimental measurements of the negative ion beam pla ... More
Presented by Dr. Emanuele SARTORI
Type: Oral Session: 2nd Session
Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The energetic efficiency of the 2MHz radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma heating (ICP RF) of Linac4’s IS03 H- source is twice more efficient once its standard octupole cusp in offset hallbach configuration is removed. This was shown by Particle in cell Monte-Carlo (PIC-MC) simulation results using the NINJA software [1] and confirmed by plasma characterization via optical emission spectro ... More
Presented by Dr. Jacques LETTRY
Type: Oral Session: 2nd Session
Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications
The ion source of the ELISE test facility ($0.9×1.0 \,\mathrm{m}^2$ with an extraction area of $0.1 \,\mathrm{m}^2$) has half the size of the ion source foreseen for the ITER NBI beam lines. Main aim of ELISE is to demonstrate that such large RF driven negative ion sources can achieve the following parameters at a filling pressure of $0.3 \,\mathrm{Pa}$: extracted current densities of $28.5 \, \m ... More Presented by Dr. Dirk WÜNDERLICH on 3 Sep 2018 at 11:30 Type: Poster Track: Beam lines and facilities The high-Q operation of the ITER tokamak will require two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) for plasma heating and current drive. Each beam will be generated by a 40A current of Deuterium negative ions, accelerated up to the specific energy of 1MeV and then neutralized. The power delivered to the plasma by each NBI shall reach 16 MW with a duration up to 1h. The beam source will be constituted by a ... More Presented by Dr. Tommaso PATTON Type: Poster Session: P-1 Track: Other Negative ion sources Plasmas to prepare functional carbon films contain negative carbon ions which should modify the sheath structure on the formed films. The density distributions of carbon negative ions in the sheath region around the carbon film must critically determine the property of the film. A DC photodetachment method was utilized to measure negative carbon ion density in the plasma formed by discharge betwee ... More Presented by Mr. Yuito IKEDA Type: Poster Track: Beam formation and low energy transport A source of epithermal neutrons based on vacuum-insulated tandem accelerator and a lithium target was proposed and developed for the technique of boron neutron capture therapy. A stationary proton beam of 2 MeV with a current of up to 6 mA was obtained in the accelerator. To optimize the injection of a beam of negative hydrogen ions into the accelerator, a wire scanner OWS-30 (D-Pace, Canada) was ... More Presented by Mr. Timofey BYKOV Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications For the development of boron neutron capture therapy at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics it was created a source of epithermal neutrons [1], based on a tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation. In the accelerator it was obtained a stationary proton beam with 2 MeV energy and up to 5 mA current [2]. In order to increase the proton current, it has been in depth studied the transport of a ... More Presented by Mr. Yaroslav KOLESNIKOV Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications The development of a high power negative ion beam accelerator is one of the key aspects in the neutral beam injection system (NBI) for fusion reactors. For example, the ITER NBI requires 1 MeV deutrium negative ion (D<sup>-</sup>) beams with a current density of 200 A/m<sup>2</sup> and a divergence angle of < 7 mrad. Such high power beam accelerations have been demonstrated in a MeV test facility ... More Presented by Glynnis Mae SAQUILAYAN Type: Poster Track: Beam lines and facilities Neutral beam injection (NBI) system of the thermonuclear neutron source DEMO-FNS is suggested for a steady-state plasma heating and current drive. The injector scheme for DEMO-FNS incorporates a negative ions source coupled with accelerator delivering D- beam accelerated to 500keV with the current 40A. The subsequent neutralization and ions removal from the beam, as well as its further path to pla ... More Presented by Dr. Sergey ANANYEV Type: Oral Track: Fundamental processes and modelling The neutral beam injection (NBI) will be a fundamental method for plasma heating and current drive in the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). As the most critical step towards the CFETR-NBI system, a research project of the CFETR neutral beam test facility (CFETR-NBTF) has be started in China. The objectives of the first phase of CFETR-NBTF are to produce a negative hydrogen ion beam of ... More Presented by Dr. Jianglong WEI Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications Negative ion source based neutral beam injection system is one of the most efficient method of fusion plasma heating.Negative ion source is used instead of positive ions in case of higher power NBIs,due to high neutralization factor in the beam energy range useful for ITER type fusion reactors.To understand the efficiency of negative ion source ,negative ion density measurement is a prerequisite . ... More Presented by Mr. Debrup MUKHOPADHYAY Type: Oral Track: Beam formation and low energy transport High-voltage negative-ion based injector is under development at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. Negative ion part of injector is studied at separate test stand and consists of: 1) the long-pulse RF surface-plasma source, 2) low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 3) single aperture 0.5-1 MeV accelerating tube. Deflecting magnets and high speed 105 l/s cryopumps, that are installed in LEBT, pu ... More Presented by Mr. Oleg SOTNIKOV Type: Oral Session: 1st Session Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications An overview of the negative ion and neutral beam injectors, developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics is presented. The highlights and innovations, used in a variety of positive and negative ion sources, produced by BINP team for plasma heating, diagnostics and for injection into accelerators are discussed. Data and long-term experience of BINP produced ion sources service at the fusion ... More Presented by Prof. Alexander IVANOV on 3 Sep 2018 at 09:40 Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications The Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) system for DEMO is designed to deliver a beam with energy 800 keV, accelerated current 34 A, and will require a neutralization efficiency for negative ions larger than 70\% [1]. Research groups in France and Switzerland are developing a new source concept for DEMO NBI based on a magnetized plasma column produced by a helicon antenna [2]. In RAID (Resonant Antenna Io ... More Presented by Mr. Riccardo AGNELLO Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications Pulsed and CW operation of negative ion radio frequency surface plasma source with a solenoidal magnetic field is described. Dependences of a beam current on RF power, extraction voltage, solenoid magnetic field, gas flow are presented. Compact design of RF SPS is presented. The work was supported in part by US DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 and by STTR grant, DE-SC0011323. Presented by Prof. Vadim DUDNIKOV Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications In ITER and Demo devices, the heating of fusion plasma will be mainly provided by the injection of 1 MeV neutral deuterium atom (D) beams into tokamak. Such energetic neutrals are delivered by neutral beam injection (NBI) device. The key component of ITER NBI device is D- negative ion source, where a D- current density of 200 A/m2 is required. ITER negative ion (NI) source is based on Cs injection ... More Presented by Ms. Roba MOUSSAOUI Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications$\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,$Multi cusp DC arc-discharge hydrogen negative ion ($\mathrm {H}^-$) source has been developed for proton cyclotron, which is used for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) [1, 2]. In order to shorten the treatment time for BNCT, it is required to get high extracted beam current from the source.$\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,$The final goal of this study is to understand the dependence of th ... More Presented by Mr. SHOTA YAMADA Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications Development of high-density negative ion plasmas and control of behaviors of the negative ion plasmas and beams are performed for a variety of application of negative ion beams. Three negative ion beam injectors based on filament-arc source have been operational for plasma experiment in Large Helical Device. In order to improve the negative ion beam performance in deuterium beam operation, further ... More Presented by Dr. Kenichi NAGAOKA Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications A continuous-wave surface-plasma negative hydrogen ion source is used at 2 MeV tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation at the Budker Institute of nuclear physics since 2006 [1]. The source uses the hydrogen-cesium Penning discharge with plasma injection from hollow cathodes, and negative hydrogen ion production due to interaction of plasma particles with anode electrode surface [2]. It routinely ... More Presented by Dr. Andrey SANIN Type: Oral Track: Applications The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS), created at BINP, is used for an ultra-sensitive radiocarbon concentration measurements for archaeology, geology, biomedical science and other fields. The BINP AMS is based on the 1MV folded tandem accelerator with 3+ ion selection. The most distinguishing feature of BINP AMS is the use of electrostatic separator of ion beam, located inside the high vol ... More Presented by Dr. Sergey RASTIGEEV Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a next generation fusion device towards the using of fusion energy. The main machine of CFETR and the auxiliary plasma heating tools including the Neutral beam injector (NBI) were under design. The high power ion source is the most precision and important part of NBI. A negative ion source was designed for the key technology study and perform ... More Presented by Dr. yahong XIE Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications Early this year the original LBNL RFQ was removed from the Spallation Neutron Source Frontend and replaced with a newly designed, more robust unit [1]. This presented an opportunity to improve the installation of several auxillary ion source components and to improve their robustness and ease their handling; the stepper motor for controlling the 20-turn adjustable capacitor of the resonant RF circ ... More Presented by Martin STOCKLI Type: Poster Track: Fundamental processes and modelling Effect of the plasma electrode position upon the negative hydrogen (H$^-$) ion beam current extracted from a Bernas type ion source have been studied. In the previous study plasma electrode located inside of the arc chamber covered almost all length along the plasma column sustained in a liner confinement magnetic field. In this study the amount of H$^-$beam current was measured as a function of ... More Presented by Mr. Masaki ISHIKAWA Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications Negative ion sources are a key component of neutral beam injection systems. A novel concept for a negative ion source based on existing well tested Hall thrusters (HT) is presented. The thruster has been designed in order to maximize the hydrogen dissociation process so that the atom flux which exits the thruster has an optimized energy to generate negative ions when impinging on a low work functi ... More Presented by Dr. Emanuele SARTORI Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications It is proposed one universal H-/D- ion source design combining the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high-current high-brightness ion beams with >90% polarization and improved lifetime, reliability, and power efficiency. The new source utilizes high-intensity resonant charge-exchange ionization of neutral atoms by negative ions generated by cesiated surfac ... More Presented by Prof. Vadim DUDNIKOV Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications Operation of a cesiated rf-driven negative hydrogen ion (H$^-$) source was initiated in September 2014 in order to fulfill the requirements on beam current upgrade in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The required H$^-$beam current from the ion source to the J-PARC accelerators has been successfully delivered without serious problems. In 2017-2018 campaign, continuous operation ... More Presented by Dr. Katsuhiro SHINTO Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications An RF H-minus source with external antenna is under development for the upgrade of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), which requires a H$^-$beam of 40 mA peak current at 25 Hz repetition rate and 1 ms pulse length. The 2 MHz RF power is generated by a solid-state amplifier. Then a 50 kV insulation transformer is used to protect the amplifier from electric flash. The matching circuit consists ... More Presented by Dr. Weidong CHEN Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications A negative ion source test facility was developed for the ion source performance tests. In order to support the experimental research, a power feed-in system was designed, which contains a solid state radio frequency (RF) generator and a matching network of L type with high voltage transformer. The design of RF generator was presented in this paper according to the requirements and characteristics ... More Presented by Mr. Caichao JIANG Type: Oral Track: Fundamental processes and modelling It has been experimentally proven that adsorption of alkali metals like Caesium (Cs) on tungsten reduces tungsten’s effective work function. The work function of pure W surface is 4.55eV and that of pure Cs is 2.14 eV [1]; however with fractional monolayer (0.6 – 0.7) of Cs coverage on W surface makes the effective work-function of the W surface as low as 1.5eV [2]. It is well known from previ ... More Presented by Mr. Pranjal SINGH Type: Poster Track: Beam acceleration and neutralization In the ITER fusion project two deuterium Neutral Beam (NB) injectors of 40 MW will be used to further heating the TOKAMAK plasma up to the ignition temperature. The neutralization method of the two D- beams, the gas cells, has an efficiency of about 60%, then residual charged beams of about 40% have to be deflected and dumped before the injection in the plasma. In order to improve the electrical e ... More Presented by Dr. Vincenzo VARIALE Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications At the BATMAN test facility, prototypes of RF driven sources of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam heating systems have been developed successfully over the last decades. Recently, the test facility has been upgraded with a new ITER-like extraction system comparable in size to one ITER beamlet group. Like for the ITER sources, the magnetic filter field can now also be generated by a current f ... More Presented by Prof. Ursel FANTZ Type: Poster Track: Other Negative ion sources Accelerator mass spectrometry is a powerful analytic method used in archaeology, geology, biology and medicine. Due to its huge resolution, even single atoms are statistically observable for standard 1 or 3 mg target samples. The main problem of the method is to clear the ions beam off the molecular isobars. The use of the negative ions and stripper to change the charge state of ions solves the pr ... More Presented by Mr. Eugene KONSTANTINOV Type: Oral Session: 1st Session Track: Beam lines and facilities To reach fusion conditions and control plasma configuration in ITER, the next step towards establishing nuclear fusion as viable energy source, suitable combination of additional heating and current drive systems is necessary. Among them, two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) will provide 33MW hydrogen/deuterium particles electrostatically accelerated to 1MeV; efficient gas-cell neutralisation at such ... More Presented by Dr. Gianluigi SERIANNI Type: Oral Track: Fundamental processes and modelling Large negative ion sources for neutral beam injection rely on surface production of negative ions on a converter surface (plasma grid) in a low temperature plasma environment. To increase the negative ion production efficiency and reduce the amount of co-extracted electrons, the work function of the plasma grid is reduced by using Cs, which is evaporated in the source and redistributed by the plas ... More Presented by Alessandro MIMO Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications SPIDER is the prototype of the ion source of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector presently in operation at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padova, Italy, designed to deliver an ion current density of 355A/m2 in H- (285 A/m2 in D-) and to accelerate the beam of extracted particles up to 100 keV energy. SPIDER is equipped with a plasma source composed of 8 Radio Frequency (RF) drivers each transferri ... More Presented by Mauro RECCHIA Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications Recently, it has been reported that a high production rate of negative hydrogen ion (H-) was observed from a nano-porous C12A7 electride surface immersed in hydrogen/deuterium low-pressure plasmas [1]. The H- ion energy spectrum seemed to indicate that the dominant process leading to H- ion formation was through kinetic desorption induced by low energy ions. Fundamental understanding of the p ... More Presented by Dr. Mamiko SASAO Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications Understanding the distribution of caesium by plasma within the expansion region of the SPIDER beam source is essential to maximise the efficiency of negative ion surface-production. The caesium is redistributed by plasma diffusion and is greatly affected by the plasma-wall interactions with the molybdenum walls. This work considers the processes which make up the plasma wall interaction and the tr ... More Presented by Dr. Emanuele SARTORI Type: Poster Session: P-2 Track: Fundamental processes and modelling Current fusion plasma research requires a high intensity neutral beam of either hydrogen or deuterium to heat the plasma. The intensity of the negative hydrogen (${\rm H^{-}}$) ion current extracted from an ion source chamber depends on both the plasma electrode (PE) surface material and the bias voltage against the plasma potential. The amount of the negative deuterium (${\rm D^{-}}$) ions should ... More Presented by Mr. Shingo MASAKI Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications The ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is a versatile multiaperture H$^-$source capable of continuous regime operation, with the plasma generated by a 2 MHz/2.5 kW radiofrequency (rf) power supply and nine beamlet extraction, operated since 2014 in close collaboration between Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL. It aims to partly reproduce the conditions of the much larger ion sources built or ... More Presented by Dr. Marco CAVENAGO Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications For the continued improvement and development of large negative hydrogen ion sources for NBI applications, beam characterisation is of critical importance for understanding and predicting the interaction of the beam with, for example, a gas neutraliser system. The relationship between the results of beam diagnostics and the physical properties of the beam is not a trivial one, and a full understan ... More Presented by Dr. Andrew HURLBATT Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications A Penning-type surface-plasma ion source source has provided H$^{-}$beam for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) for nearly 35 years. The source delivers 55 mA of H$^{-}$beam current with a beam duty factor of 1.5$\%$at 50 Hz repetition rate and a transverse 4-rms emittance$<1.0\pi \cdot $mm$\cdot$mrad. Only 25 mA of H$^-$current is ac ... More Presented by Dr. Olli TARVAINEN Type: Poster Track: Fundamental processes and modelling The complexity of the negative ion sheath is immediately evident, for several reasons: the electrons are magnetized, so that a collisionless model is clearly faulty and overoptimistic, since it neglect electron extraction (an undesired effect). As in other sheath models, the kinetic effects are important, so that the self-consistent electric potential is naturally determined by an integral equati ... More Presented by Dr. Marco CAVENAGO Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications In order to verify the accomplishment of the ITER requirements regarding the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%), beamlet divergence and stripping losses during short pulse operation (several seconds), a diagnostic calorimeter, named STRIKE [1], will be exposed to the negative hydrogen ion beam of the ITER ion source prototype SPIDER [2]. The facility, located at Consorrzio RFX (Pado ... More Presented by Dr. Antonio PIMAZZONI Type: Poster Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications The RF compact negative ion source NIO1 installed at Consorzio RFX, in collaboration with INFN-LNL, allows to test several magnetic filter configuration inside the ion source and their relation with the fringe field of the electrons suppression magnets embedded into the extraction grid (by convention z is the extraction axis, while extraction grid magnets deflects electrons along y direction). NIO ... More Presented by Dr. Carlo BALTADOR Type: Poster Track: Other Negative ion sources A new, efficient method to produce ultacold negative muon ions is proposed. The muonium atom is made up of an anti muon and an electron and is given the chemical symbol Mu. A second electron with binding energy or electron affinity of 0.75 eV makes the Mu- ion, which is in many ways almost identical to the H- ion that is used for charge-exchange injection into most proton particle accelerators. Mu ... More Presented by Prof. Vadim DUDNIKOV Type: Oral Track: H– and D– sources for fusion, accelerators and other applications The modular concept of the ITER Negative Beam Ion (NBI) source has been replicated in the ELISE test facility with half of the source size in the vertical direction; thus producing a large beam of about$1\,m\,×\,1\,m\$. The target of ELISE is to achieve simultaneously the ITER NBI parameters in terms of negative ion extracted current (in H and D), pulse duration and ratio of co-extracted electron ... More
Presented by Dr. Federica BONOMO