A study has been first made of the element composition of both the plants of two species of the genus Syringa, growing under technogenic impact in Novosibirsk and the soil samples from their habitat by method of X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation (SRXRF) at the station of element analysis of SCSTR of the Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS (VEPP-3 store ring).
The material studied was represented by the plants of two species - Syringa josikaea and S. vulgaris, represented by three cultivars: ‘Nadezhda’, ‘Olimpiada Kolesnikova’, ‘Pamjat o Kirove’, growing in conditions of technogenic impact and background, collected in August of 2017 in Novosibirsk.
A comparative analysis of the soil from the points of sampling of plant samples showed an excess in the content of V, Zn, Br, Pb and a decrease in Mn in urban soils compared with the background.
The study of the content of macro- and microelements in the aerial organs of representatives of the genus Syringa showed that the concentration of macroelements K and Ca is higher in the leaves than in the stems, regardless of the taxon and place of growth.
The highest total content of K and Ca is revealed in the leaves of S. josikaea. It was found that in plants under technogenic impact, the content of Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Br, Rb, Nb increased and Zn and Mo decreased compared to the control, the most severe heavy metal pollution in urban conditions was observed in plants of S. josikaea.
The biogeochemical transformation coefficient (Zv) was calculated, which reflects a violation of the normal ratios of elements in the organs of plants as a result of increased anthropogenic load. The most significant changes in the elemental composition of lilac leaves under anthropogenic impact were observed in plants of the species S. josikaea, whose Zv of leaves is 37.2, which is 1.3–1.6 times higher than in plants of S. vulgaris. Plants of the ‘Memory of Kirov’ variety (Zv = 22.8) are most resistant to pollution.
As a result, reliable data were first obtained on the content of 20 elements in samples of two species of the genus Syringa in the urban ecosystem of Novosibirsk. The species and cultivars that are most tolerant to pollution in urban conditions, which can be recommended for widespread use in green construction, are identified. The data obtained on the elemental composition of plant samples and soils may be included in the databases. This work is partially supported by RFBR grant № 16-44-040204.