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X-ray structural analysis

The project of the beam-line "Fast processes" at synchrotron radiation source SKIF in Novosibirsk


  • Konstantin TEN

Primary authors



A new beamline "Fast processes" will be put into operation in the test mode at the SKIF synchrotron radiation source in 2024. The beamline will have stations: 1) "Plasma"; 2) "High temperature"; 3) "Extreme conditions". The stations will supervise accordingly: 1) Institute of nuclear physics of the SB RAS; 2) Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry of the SB RAS; 3) Institute of Hydrodynamics of SB RAS. The beamline will use the radiation from a 100-pole superconducting wiggler with a 5 T field. At a photon energy of 30 keV, the brightness will be 10 ^ 19 phot / (sec mm^2 mrad^2 0.1% BW). The energy range will be from 5 to 200 keV. X-ray optics. A dual monochromator with a fixed output can provide monochromatization from 10^-2 to 10^-4. If necessary, a monochromator can skip a white beam. Focusing mirrors will be used, which will ensure focusing and cutting of high harmonics if necessary. To work in a high energy area, refractive optics will be used. Both focusing and defocusing lens will be used. Refractive optics is manufactured by LIGA technology [ 1]. One lens consists of 150,000 microelements made of SU-8. On the VEPP-4, such lens compresses the beam 10 times. On a new source of synchrotron radiation SKIF, which began to be designed, the beam can be compressed 1000 times. A fast chopper will be used, for investigating of fast processes, with exposure from a single bunch with continuance near 1 - 73 ps. Detectors. A fast one-coordinate X-ray detector was developed for single bunch experiments [ 2]. The detector enables fast recording of 100 diffraction frames with an exposure time of 73 ps, space resolution 100 micron and a periodicity of 100 ns. Thus, we can record X-ray "movies" with high time resolution, which store information about the dynamics change of structure of the object under external action. Detectors OD-3M [ 3] and PILATUS will also be used. Required element will be beam monitor. The monitor will determine both the intensity of the beam and its position with an accuracy of 1 micron. The read out frequency of monitor will be 100 MHz, which will allow to determine the position of the radiation from each bunch of electrons. Explosion chamber. Currently, there are two blasting chambers in which it is possible to blast an explosive charge of 15 g and 200 g, which have diameters of 60 cm and 120 cm, respectively. At present, work has begun on the design of an explosive chamber for the charge of an explosive weighing 2000 g. Gas dynamical gun. To study shock waves, a cannon is made that has the following parameters: bullet velocity – 600 m / s, bullet diameter – 20 mm, bullet weight – 500 g. The cannon with a bullet velocity of 12 km / s is designing for study the impact of micrometeorite on the surface of a space apparatus. Methods of research. Three research methods will used: X-ray imaging, the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the X-ray diffraction. The X-ray imaging will used to tomographically reconstruct the density distribution of detonation products during an explosion (of particular interest is the reaction zone and the structure of the detonation front) [ 4], to study shock waves and ejected products density distribution in spallation processes [ 5, 6]. Small-angle X-ray scattering will used to study the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles [ 7, 8]- the products of a chemical reaction during detonation (for example, nanodiamonds), will used to analyze the size of the particles formed during ejected in spallation processes. X-ray diffraction will used to study the change in the crystal structure of the material of the first wall of a thermonuclear reactor during the ELM discharge, simulated by laser pulse heating with parameters: E = 100 J, pulse duration 120 microseconds [ 9].

1 Russian patent # 2572045. 2 Shekhtman, L.I., Aulchenko, et al. GEM-based detectors for SR imaging and particle tracking. (2012) Journal of Instrumentation, 7 (3), C03021. 3 Aulchenko, V.M., Evdokov, O.V., Kutovenko, V.D., Pirogov, B.Ya., Sharafutdinov, M.R., Titov, V.M., Tolochko, B.P., Vasiljev, A.V., Zhogin, I.A., Zhulanov, V.V. One-coordinate X-ray detector OD-3M (2009) Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 603 (1-2), pp. 76-79. 4 Pruuel, E.R., Ten, K.A., Tolochko, B.P., Merzhievskii, L.A., Luk'Yanchikov, L.A., Aul'Chenko, V.M., Zhulanov, V.V., Shekhtman, L.I., Titov, V.M. Implementation of the capability of synchrotron radiation in a study of detonation processes. (2013) Doklady Physics, 58 (1), pp. 24-28. 5 Ten, K.A., Pruuel, E.R., Kashkarov, A.O., et al. Detection of microparticles in dynamic processes. (2016) Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 774 (1), 012070. 6 Ten, K.A., Pruuel, E.R., et al. Synchrotron Radiation Methods for Registration of Particles Ejected from Free Surface of Shock-loaded Metals. (2016) Physics Procedia, 84, pp. 366-373. 7 Rubtsov, I.A., Ten, K.A., et al. Growth of carbon nanoparticles during the detonation of trinitrotoluene. (2016) Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 754 (5), 052004. 8 Rubtsov, I.A., Ten, K.A., et al. Synchrotron Radiation Method for Study the Dynamics of Nanoparticle Sizes in Trinitrotoluene during Detonation. (2016) Physics Procedia, 84, pp. 374-381. 9 Arakcheev, A.S., Ancharov, A.I., et al. Applications of synchrotron radiation scattering to studies of plasma facing components at Siberian Synchrotron and Terahertz Radiation Centre. (2016) AIP Conference Proceedings, 1771, 060003.