Diagnostics of modern synchrotron radiation sources based on refractive X-ray optics
Recently, the creation of new technologies in the physics of particle accelerators led to a sharp increase in maximum brightness and coherence of synchrotron radiation (SR). The production of low–emittance beams is one of the key techniques for electron accelerators and synchrotron light sources. As a consequence, accurate diagnostics and monitoring of the generated X-ray source have become an important task for the operation of the new generation of synchrotrons.
The pinhole camera (Fig. 1a) is commonly used for monitoring X-ray sources of the third generation, but due to decreasing the size of emittance for SR of the new generation, this approach will limit the possibilities of observation, this means they become less effective. The using of refractive optics, such as Compound Refractive Lenses (CRL) (Fig. 1b)  and CRL based interferometers , can increase the resulting spatial resolution. On the one hand, CRL produce magnifying source image, which in turn will make it possible to observe it in details. On the other hand, a multilens interferometer can produce an interference pattern that will be more sensitive to the singularity of the source itself and his coherence properties.
The interest of imaging devices using CRLs for beam diagnostics at high-energy storage rings lies in the possibility of choosing the electron beam as the object to image and thus obtaining a direct image of the source with a simple experimental setup .
We propose a method for diagnosing new generation of low-emittance SR sources based on refractive X-ray optics. The proposed methods will be in demand, taking into account the construction of new synchrotrons in Russia.
These developments were supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Contracts № 14.Y26.31.0002 and 02.G25.31.0086).
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